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Django+Uwsgi+Nginx如何实现生产环境部署

运维开发网 https://www.qedev.com 2020-08-01 11:06 出处:网络 作者: 金角大王Alex
如何在生产上部署Django? Django的部署可以有很多方式,采用nginx+uwsgi的方式是其中比较常见的一种方式。

如何在生产上部署Django?

Django的部署可以有很多方式,采用nginx+uwsgi的方式是其中比较常见的一种方式。

uwsgi介绍

uWSGI是一个Web服务器,它实现了WSGI协议、uwsgi、http等协议。Nginx中HttpUwsgiModule的作用是与uWSGI服务器进行交换。

要注意 WSGI / uwsgi / uWSGI 这三个概念的区分。

  • WSGI是一种Web服务器网关接口。它是一个Web服务器(如nginx,uWSGI等服务器)与web应用(如用Flask框架写的程序)通信的一种规范。
  • uwsgi是一种线路协议而不是通信协议,在此常用于在uWSGI服务器与其他网络服务器的数据通信。
  • 而uWSGI是实现了uwsgi和WSGI两种协议的Web服务器。
  • uwsgi协议是一个uWSGI服务器自有的协议,它用于定义传输信息的类型(type of information),每一个uwsgi packet前4byte为传输信息类型描述,它与WSGI相比是两样东西。

uwsgi性能非常高

Django+Uwsgi+Nginx如何实现生产环境部署

uWSGI的主要特点如下

  • 超快的性能
  • 低内存占用(实测为apache2的mod_wsgi的一半左右)
  • 多app管理(终于不用冥思苦想下个app用哪个端口比较好了-.-)
  • 详尽的日志功能(可以用来分析app性能和瓶颈)
  • 高度可定制(内存大小限制,服务一定次数后重启等)

总而言之uwgi是个部署用的好东东,正如uWSGI作者所吹嘘的:

If you are searching for a simple wsgi-only server, uWSGI is not for you, but if you are building a real (production-ready) app that need to be rock-solid, fast and easy to distribute/optimize for various load-average, you will pathetically and morbidly fall in love (we hope) with uWSGI.

Uwsgi 安装使用

# Install the latest stable release:

pip install uwsgi

# ... or if you want to install the latest LTS (long term support) release,

pip install https://projects.unbit.it/downloads/uwsgi-lts.tar.gz

基本测试

Create a file called test.py:

# test.py
def application(env, start_response):
  start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type','text/html')])
  return [b"Hello World"] # python3
  #return ["Hello World"] # python2

运行

uwsgi --http :8000 --wsgi-file test.py

用uwsgi 启动django

uwsgi --http :8000 --module mysite.wsgi

可以把参数写到配置文件里

[email protected]:~/uwsgi-test$ more crazye-uwsgi.ini
 
 
[uwsgi]
http = :9000
#the local unix socket file than commnuincate to Nginx
socket = 127.0.0.1:8001
# the base directory (full path)
chdir = /home/alex/CrazyEye
# Django's wsgi file
wsgi-file = CrazyEye/wsgi.py
# maximum number of worker processes
processes = 4
#thread numbers startched in each worker process
threads = 2
 
#monitor uwsgi status
stats = 127.0.0.1:9191
# clear environment on exit
vacuum     = true

启动

/usr/local/bin/uwsgi crazye-uwsgi.ini

Nginx安装使用  

sudo apt-get install nginx

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start # start nginx

为你的项目生成Nginx配置文件

You will need the uwsgi_params file, which is available in the nginx directory of the uWSGI distribution, or from https://github.com/nginx/nginx/blob/master/conf/uwsgi_params

Copy it into your project directory. In a moment we will tell nginx to refer to it.

Now create a file called mysite_nginx.conf, and put this in it:

# mysite_nginx.conf
 
# the upstream component nginx needs to connect to
upstream django {
  # server unix:///path/to/your/mysite/mysite.sock; # for a file socket
  server 127.0.0.1:8001; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)
}
 
# configuration of the server
server {
  # the port your site will be served on
  listen   8000;
  # the domain name it will serve for
  server_name .example.com; # substitute your machine's IP address or FQDN
  charset   utf-8;
 
  # max upload size
  client_max_body_size 75M;  # adjust to taste
 
  # Django media
  location /media {
    alias /path/to/your/mysite/media; # your Django project's media files - amend as required
  }
 
  location /static {
    alias /path/to/your/mysite/static; # your Django project's static files - amend as required
  }
 
  # Finally, send all non-media requests to the Django server.
  location / {
    uwsgi_pass django;
    include   /path/to/your/mysite/uwsgi_params; # the uwsgi_params file you installed
  }
}

This conf file tells nginx to serve up media and static files from the filesystem, as well as handle requests that require Django's intervention. For a large deployment it is considered good practice to let one server handle static/media files, and another handle Django applications, but for now, this will do just fine.

Symlink to this file from /etc/nginx/sites-enabled so nginx can see it:

sudo ln -s ~/path/to/your/mysite/mysite_nginx.conf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

Deploying static files

Before running nginx, you have to collect all Django static files in the static folder. First of all you have to edit mysite/settings.py adding:

STATIC_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR, "static/")

and then run

python manage.py collectstatic  

此时启动Nginx 和Uwsgi,你的django项目就可以实现高并发啦!

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持我们。

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