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磁盘存储管理和文件系统管理 RAID

运维开发网 https://www.qedev.com 2021-04-07 23:29 出处:51CTO 作者:哀木缇
磁盘存储管理和文件系统管理RAID1、磁盘管理1.1磁盘分区两种分区方式:MBR,GPT0磁道0扇区:512bytes446bytes:bootloader64bytes:分区表,其中每16bytes标识一个分区2bytes:55AA1.2管理分区列出块设备lsblk创建分区命令fdisk管理MBR分区gdisk管理GPT分区parted高级分区操作,1.3parted命令parted的操作是实时

磁盘存储管理 和文件系统管理 RAID

1、磁盘管理

1.1 磁盘分区

两种分区方式:MBR,GPT

0磁道0扇区: 512bytes

446bytes:boot loader

64bytes:分区表,其中每16bytes标识一个分区

2bytes:55AA

1.2 管理分区

列出块设备

lsblk

创建分区命令

fdisk   管理MBR分区
gdisk   管理GPT分区
parted  高级分区操作,

1.3 parted 命令

parted的操作是实时生效的,小心使用

格式:

parted [option]...[设备 [命令 [参数]...]...]

1.4 分区工具fdisk和gdisk

gdisk [device...]           类fdisk 的GPT分区工具
fdisk -l [-u] [device...]   查看分区
fdisk [device...]           管理MBR分区工具

子命令:

p       分区列表
t       更改分区类型
n       创建新分区
d       删除分区
v       校验分区
u       转换单位
w       保存退出
q       不保存退出

查看内核是否已经识别新的分区

cat /proc/partations

非交互式创建分区

echo -e 'n\np\n\n\n+2G\nw\n' | fdisk /dev/sdc

1.5 文件系统管理

1.5.1 创建文件管理工具

  • mkfs命令:

    (1) mkfs.FS_TYPE /dev/DEVICE

    ​ ext4

    ​ xfs

    ​ btfs

    ​ vfat

    (2) mkfs -t FS_TYPE /dev/DEVICE

    ​ -L 'LABEL' 设定卷标

    • mke2fs:ext系列文件系统专用管理工具

常用选项:

-t {ext2|ext3|ext4|xfs}         指定文件系统类型
-b {1024|2048|4096}             指定块大小
-L 'LABEL'                      设定卷标
-i              #为数据空间中每第多少个字节创建一个inode;不小于块大小
-N              #指定分区中创建多少个inode
-m              #默认5%,为管理人员预留空间占总空间的百分比
-o FEATURE[,...]    启用指定特性
-o ^FEATURE         关闭指定特性
-j                  相当于 -t ext3 

2、逻辑卷管理器

相关工具来自于lvm2 包

2.1 pv管理工具

#显示pv信息
pvs:简要pv信息显示
pvdisplay

#创建pv
pvcreate /dev/DEVICE

#删除pv
pvremove /dev/DEVICE

2.2 vg管理工具

#显示卷组
vgs
vgdisplay

#创建卷组
vgcreate [-s #[KkmMgGtTpPeE]] volumeGroupName physicalDevicepath [PhysicalDevivePath...]

#管理卷组
vgextend VolumeGroupName PhysicalDevicePath [PhysicalDevivePath...]
vgreduce VolumeGroupName PhysicalDevicePath [PhysicalDevivePath...]

#删除卷组
先做pvmove
再做 vgremove

2.3 lv管理工具

#显示逻辑卷
lvs
lvdisplay

#创建逻辑卷
lvcreate -l #[mMgGtT] -n Name VolumeGroup
lvcreate -l 60%VG -n mylv testvg

#删除逻辑卷
lvremove /dev/VG_NAME/LV_NAME

2.4 在线扩展逻辑卷

lvextend -L [+]#[mMgGtT] /dev/VG_NAME/LV_NAME
# ext格式
resize2fs /dev/VG_NAME/LV_NAME
# xfs格式
xfs_growfs MOUNTPOINT

lvresize -r -l +100%FREE /dev/VG_NAME/LV_NAME

3、RAID

3.1 总结RAID各个级别及其组合方式和性能的不同

RAID类型:
RAID 0、RAID 1、RAID 4、RAID 5、RAID 6、RAID 10、RAID 01、RAID 50

RAID常用性能:
RAID 0:需要至少2块硬盘,读写性能提升,可用空间为n块硬盘容量之和,无容错能力。
RAID 1:至少需要2块硬盘,硬盘数为2的倍数,可用空间为n/2容量的空间,读性能提升,写性能降低,有冗余能力。
RAID 5:至少需要3块硬盘,硬盘数为3块以上。可用空间为(n-1),读写性能提升,有容错能力,最多允许坏1块盘。
RAID 6:至少需要4块硬盘,硬盘数为4块以上,可用空间为(n-2),读写性能提升,有容错能力,最多允许坏2块盘。
RAID 10:至少需要4块硬盘,硬盘数为4的偶数,可用空间为n/2,读写性能提升,有容错能力,每组镜像最多只能坏1块盘。先组RAID 1再组 RAID 0。
RAID 01:至少4块盘,硬盘数为4的偶数,可用空间为n/2,读写性能提升,有容错能力。不同镜像不能坏存储相同内容的硬盘,先组RAID 0 再组 RAID 1。
RAID 50:至少需要6块盘,硬盘数为3的倍数,可用空间为(n-3),读写性能提升,有容错能力,每组镜像允许坏1块盘,最多允许坏2块硬盘。

3.2 破坏mbr表并修复

# 备份MBR分区表
[[email protected] ~]#dd if=/dev/sda of=/data/mbr.img bs=1 count=64 skip=446
[[email protected] ~]#scp /data/mbr.img 10.0.0.8:

# 破坏MBR分区表
[[email protected] ~]#dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=1 count=64 seek=446

#重启无法进入系统
[[email protected] ~]#reboot

#用光盘启动,进入rescue mode,选择1)Continue -->> 回车进入shell

#配置网络
sh-4.4#ip addr add 10.0.0.18/24 dev ens33 
sh-4.4#scp 10.0.0.8:/root/mbr.img .

#恢复MBR分区表
sh-4.4#dd if=mbr.img of=/dev/sda bs=1 seek=446
sh-4.4#exit

3.3 磁盘管理实例

3.3.1 创建一个2G的文件系统,块大小为2048byte,预留1%可用空间,文件系统 ext4,卷标为TEST,要求此分区开机后自动挂载至/test目录,且默认有acl挂载选项

#创建2G分区
[[email protected] ~]#fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 200 GiB, 214748364800 bytes, 419430400 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x3bce8aa0

Device     Boot     Start       End   Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *         2048   2099199   2097152    1G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200 211814399 209715200  100G 83 Linux
/dev/sda3       211814400 218105855   6291456    3G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda4       218105856 419430399 201324544   96G  5 Extended
/dev/sda5       218107904 322965503 104857600   50G 83 Linux
[[email protected] ~]#fdisk /dev/sda

Welcome to fdisk (util-Linux 2.32.1).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Command (m for help): n
All primary partitions are in use.
Adding logical partition 6
First sector (322967552-419430399, default 322967552): 
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (322967552-419430399, default 419430399): +2G

Created a new partition 6 of type 'Linux' and of size 2 GiB.

Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sda: 200 GiB, 214748364800 bytes, 419430400 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x3bce8aa0

Device     Boot     Start       End   Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *         2048   2099199   2097152    1G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200 211814399 209715200  100G 83 Linux
/dev/sda3       211814400 218105855   6291456    3G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda4       218105856 419430399 201324544   96G  5 Extended
/dev/sda5       218107904 322965503 104857600   50G 83 Linux
/dev/sda6       322967552 327161855   4194304    2G 83 Linux

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered.
Syncing disks.

[[email protected] ~]#lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0  200G  0 disk 
├─sda1   8:1    0    1G  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0  100G  0 part /
├─sda3   8:3    0    3G  0 part [SWAP]
├─sda4   8:4    0    1K  0 part 
├─sda5   8:5    0   50G  0 part /data
└─sda6   8:6    0    2G  0 part 
sr0     11:0    1  8.6G  0 rom  

#创建2G ext4文件系统
[[email protected] ~]#mkfs.ext4 -b 2048 -L 'TEST' -m 1 /dev/sda6
mke2fs 1.45.6 (20-Mar-2020)
Creating filesystem with 1048576 2k blocks and 131072 inodes
Filesystem UUID: 344bd85b-cf28-4ace-aa25-a962f56a554f
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
    16384, 49152, 81920, 114688, 147456, 409600, 442368, 802816

Allocating group tables: done                            
Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (16384 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done 

[[email protected] ~]#blkid | grep /dev/sda6
/dev/sda6: LABEL="TEST" UUID="344bd85b-cf28-4ace-aa25-a962f56a554f" BLOCK_SIZE="2048" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="3bce8aa0-06"

#创建text挂载点并添加挂载配置使开机自动挂载
[[email protected] ~]#mkdir /test
[[email protected] /]#vim /etc/fstab
UUID=344bd85b-cf28-4ace-aa25-a962f56a554f /test                   ext4    defaults        0 0  

#设置默认挂载acl选项
[[email protected] ~]#tune2fs -o acl /dev/sda6
[[email protected] /]#reboot
[[email protected] ~]#df 
Filesystem     1K-blocks    Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda6        2031306    9236   1992908   1% /test
[[email protected] ~]#tune2fs -l /dev/sda6
tune2fs 1.45.6 (20-Mar-2020)
Filesystem volume name:   TEST
Last mounted on:          <not available>
Filesystem UUID:          344bd85b-cf28-4ace-aa25-a962f56a554f
Filesystem magic number:  0xEF53
Filesystem revision #:    1 (dynamic)
Filesystem features:      has_journal ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype needs_recovery extent 64bit flex_bg sparse_super large_file huge_file dir_nlink extra_isize metadata_csum
Filesystem flags:         signed_directory_hash 
Default mount options:    user_xattr acl            #分区挂载选项支持acl
Filesystem state:         clean
Errors behavior:          Continue
Filesystem OS type:       Linux

3.3.2 创建一个至少有两个PV组成的大小为20G的名为testvg的VG;要求PE大小 为16MB, 而后在卷组中创建大小为5G的逻辑卷testlv;挂载至/users目录

#创建两个分区,/dev/sda7和/dev/sda8 大小均为10G 且分区格式为lvm
[[email protected] ~]#fdisk /dev/sda

Welcome to fdisk (util-Linux 2.32.1).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sda: 200 GiB, 214748364800 bytes, 419430400 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x3bce8aa0

Device     Boot     Start       End   Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *         2048   2099199   2097152    1G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200 211814399 209715200  100G 83 Linux
/dev/sda3       211814400 218105855   6291456    3G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda4       218105856 419430399 201324544   96G  5 Extended
/dev/sda5       218107904 322965503 104857600   50G 83 Linux
/dev/sda6       322967552 327161855   4194304    2G 83 Linux

Command (m for help): n
All primary partitions are in use.
Adding logical partition 7
First sector (327163904-419430399, default 327163904): 
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (327163904-419430399, default 419430399): +10G

Created a new partition 7 of type 'Linux' and of size 10 GiB.

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-7, default 7): 7   
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 8e

Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux LVM'.

Command (m for help): n
All primary partitions are in use.
Adding logical partition 8
First sector (348137472-419430399, default 348137472): 
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (348137472-419430399, default 419430399): +10G

Created a new partition 8 of type 'Linux' and of size 10 GiB.

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-8, default 8): 8
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 8e

Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux LVM'.

Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sda: 200 GiB, 214748364800 bytes, 419430400 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x3bce8aa0

Device     Boot     Start       End   Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *         2048   2099199   2097152    1G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200 211814399 209715200  100G 83 Linux
/dev/sda3       211814400 218105855   6291456    3G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda4       218105856 419430399 201324544   96G  5 Extended
/dev/sda5       218107904 322965503 104857600   50G 83 Linux
/dev/sda6       322967552 327161855   4194304    2G 83 Linux
/dev/sda7       327163904 348135423  20971520   10G 8e Linux LVM
/dev/sda8       348137472 369108991  20971520   10G 8e Linux LVM

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered.
Syncing disks.

#安装lvm管理工具,查看工具包安装文件
[[email protected] ~]#yum -y install lvm2            
[[email protected] ~]#rpm -ql lvm2

#创建物理卷PV
[[email protected] ~]#pvcreate /dev/sda7
  Physical volume "/dev/sda7" successfully created.
[[email protected] ~]#pvcreate /dev/sda8
  Physical volume "/dev/sda8" successfully created.
[[email protected] ~]#pvs
  PV         VG Fmt  Attr PSize  PFree 
  /dev/sda7     lvm2 ---  10.00g 10.00g
  /dev/sda8     lvm2 ---  10.00g 10.00g

#创建卷组VG,且PE大小为16MB

[[email protected] ~]#vgcreate -s 16M testvg /dev/sda{7,8}
  Volume group "testvg" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]#vgs
  VG     #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize   VFree  
  testvg   2   0   0 wz--n- <19.97g <19.97g
[[email protected] ~]#vgdisplay 
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               testvg
  System ID             
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        2
  Metadata Sequence No  1
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                0
  Open LV               0
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                2
  Act PV                2
  VG Size               <19.97 GiB
  PE Size               16.00 MiB
  Total PE              1278
  Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0   
  Free  PE / Size       1278 / <19.97 GiB
  VG UUID               3peGQY-6UoH-3haX-rQCG-OeEY-jFcj-wKPFNu

#创建逻辑卷LV,大小为5G的testlv
[[email protected] ~]#lvcreate -n testlv -L 5G testvg
  Logical volume "testlv" created.
[[email protected] ~]#lvs
  LV     VG     Attr       LSize Pool Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
  testlv testvg -wi-a----- 5.00g                                                    
[[email protected] ~]#lvdisplay 
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Path                /dev/testvg/testlv
  LV Name                testlv
  VG Name                testvg
  LV UUID                c2bGkH-5o3O-pM60-Kvxd-VoxM-bzoz-Nlgr0S
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time CentOS8.localdomain, 2021-03-26 06:21:59 +0800
  LV Status              available
  # open                 0
  LV Size                5.00 GiB
  Current LE             320
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:0

[[email protected] ~]#vgs
  VG     #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize   VFree  
  testvg   2   1   0 wz--n- <19.97g <14.97g

#创建ext4文件系统并自动挂载/users目录
[[email protected] ~]#mkfs.ext4 /dev/testvg/testlv
mke2fs 1.45.6 (20-Mar-2020)
Creating filesystem with 1310720 4k blocks and 327680 inodes
Filesystem UUID: 2b540cd3-9f3a-4617-8940-1ae155b51474
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
    32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736

Allocating group tables: done                            
Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (16384 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done 

[[email protected] ~]#blkid
/dev/sda7: UUID="F3GTs3-X70f-lifj-Cjbz-QCp5-tk7F-3Qz3q0" TYPE="LVM2_member" PARTUUID="3bce8aa0-07"
/dev/sda8: UUID="Qk2QT3-fUdm-w4QT-3TDO-BUbM-kZbv-PEPNC2" TYPE="LVM2_member" PARTUUID="3bce8aa0-08"
/dev/sr0: BLOCK_SIZE="2048" UUID="2020-11-18-21-39-52-00" LABEL="CentOS-8-3-2011-x86_64-dvd" TYPE="iso9660" PTUUID="6b8b4567" PTTYPE="dos"
/dev/mapper/testvg-testlv: UUID="2b540cd3-9f3a-4617-8940-1ae155b51474" BLOCK_SIZE="4096" TYPE="ext4"
[[email protected] ~]#mkdir /users
[[email protected] ~]#vim /etc/fstab
#最后一行,添加
UUID=2b540cd3-9f3a-4617-8940-1ae155b51474 /users                  ext4    defaults        0 0 

#手动挂载文件系统
[[email protected] ~]#mount -a
[[email protected] ~]#df -h
Filesystem                 Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/testvg-testlv  4.9G   20M  4.6G   1% /users

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