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Docker容器(二)——镜像制作

运维开发网 https://www.qedev.com 2020-07-15 09:47 出处:网络 作者:运维开发网整理
制作Docker镜像有两种方式:第一种、docker commit,保存容器(Container)的当前状态到镜像后,然后生成对应的image;第二种、docker build,使用Dockerfile文件自动化制作镜像。 (1).docker commit   启动一个实例,安装apache [[email protected] ~]# docker images REPOSITORY

  制作Docker镜像有两种方式:第一种、docker commit,保存容器(Container)的当前状态到镜像后,然后生成对应的image;第二种、docker build,使用Dockerfile文件自动化制作镜像。

(1).docker commit

  启动一个实例,安装apache

[[email protected] ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                     TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos                         latest              67fa590cfc1c        3 weeks ago         202MB
hub.c.163.com/library/tomcat   latest              72d2be374029        2 years ago         292MB
[[email protected] ~]# docker run -it centos:latest /bin/bash
[[email protected] /]# yum -y install httpd
[[email protected] /]# exit
exit

  根据容器当前状态制作一个镜像,语法docker commit <容器ID> [仓库]:[标签]

[[email protected] ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS                     PORTS               NAMES
985ef7e0c4ca        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         4 minutes ago       Exited (0) 2 minutes ago                       sharp_kare
9a81af9b4134        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         2 days ago          Exited (0) 2 days ago                          pensive_dijkstra
3ecc9bafd429        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         2 days ago          Exited (0) 2 days ago                          sleepy_wilbur
[[email protected] ~]# docker commit 985ef7e0c4ca centos:httpd
sha256:bdd371e6f1cf035bd501c09b28a2b2827900973a0defa9e35eadcd2f2f55e5e4
[[email protected] ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                     TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos                         httpd               bdd371e6f1cf        14 seconds ago      346MB
centos                         latest              67fa590cfc1c        3 weeks ago         202MB
hub.c.163.com/library/tomcat   latest              72d2be374029        2 years ago         292MB

  启动新创建的镜像,查看是否存在httpd服务

[[email protected] ~]# docker run -it centos:httpd /bin/bash
[[email protected] /]# rpm -qa httpd  //可以看到是存在的
httpd-2.4.6-89.el7.centos.1.x86_64

(2).docker build

  使用docker build创建镜像时,需要使用Dockerfile文件自动化制作镜像。Dockerfile类似源码编译./configure后产生的Makefile。

  创建工作目录,制作Dockerfile

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir /docker-build
[[email protected] ~]# vim /docker-build/Dockerfile  
FROM centos:latest  #以哪个镜像为基础
MAINTAINER <[email protected]>  #镜像创建者
RUN yum -y install httpd  #运行安装httpd命令
ADD start.sh /usr/local/bin/start.sh  #将本地文件拷贝到镜像中,权限为0755(?),uid和gid为0
ADD index.html /var/www/html/index.html
CMD /usr/local/bin/start.sh  #实例启动后执行的命令,一般跟需要开机启动的服务或脚本

  创建start.sh和index.html

[[email protected] ~]# echo "/usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND" > /docker-build/start.sh
[[email protected] ~]# chmod +x /docker-build/start.sh
[[email protected] ~]# echo "docker image build test" > /docker-build/index.html

  删除已有的centos:httpd

[[email protected] ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS                         PORTS               NAMES
34ac01c03fe3        centos:httpd        "/bin/bash"         About an hour ago   Exited (0) 43 minutes ago                          gifted_cerf
985ef7e0c4ca        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         About an hour ago   Exited (0) About an hour ago                       sharp_kare
9a81af9b4134        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         2 days ago          Exited (0) 2 days ago                              pensive_dijkstra
3ecc9bafd429        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         2 days ago          Exited (0) 2 days ago                              sleepy_wilbur
[[email protected] ~]# docker stop 34ac01c03fe3
34ac01c03fe3
[[email protected] ~]# docker rm 34ac01c03fe3
34ac01c03fe3
[[email protected] ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS                         PORTS               NAMES
985ef7e0c4ca        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         About an hour ago   Exited (0) About an hour ago                       sharp_kare
9a81af9b4134        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         2 days ago          Exited (0) 2 days ago                              pensive_dijkstra
3ecc9bafd429        centos:latest       "/bin/bash"         2 days ago          Exited (0) 2 days ago    
[[email protected] ~]# docker rmi centos:httpd
Untagged: centos:httpd
Deleted: sha256:bdd371e6f1cf035bd501c09b28a2b2827900973a0defa9e35eadcd2f2f55e5e4
Deleted: sha256:e5f250b390d99269c53a6150c776f5af4e74b965f4c86977fea7582b9e624870
[[email protected] ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                     TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos                         latest              67fa590cfc1c        3 weeks ago         202MB
hub.c.163.com/library/tomcat   latest              72d2be374029        2 years ago         292MB

  使用build创建新的镜像,语法docker build -t [仓库名]:[标签] [Dockerfile文件路径]

[[email protected] ~]# docker build -t centos:httpd /docker-build/ 
[[email protected] ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                     TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED              SIZE
centos                         httpd               565f0e4e1ef3        About a minute ago   346MB
centos                         latest              67fa590cfc1c        3 weeks ago          202MB
hub.c.163.com/library/tomcat   latest              72d2be374029        2 years ago          292MB

(3).Docker镜像发布

 1)发布到本地

  语法:docker save  -o [tar包名] [仓库名]:[标签]

[[email protected] ~]# docker save -o docker.id-centos-httpd-image.tar centos:httpd
[[email protected] ~]# ll -h
总用量 346M
-rw-------. 1 root root 1.6K 5月  14 09:20 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-------  1 root root 339M 9月  14 15:26 docker.id-centos-httpd-image.tar

 2)发布到网上

  一般先到https://hub.docker.com/(DockerHub)上注册一个账号,并创建一个存储库

  使用命令登录

[[email protected] ~]# docker login -u [用户名] -p [密码]
WARNING! Using --password via the CLI is insecure. Use --password-stdin.

WARNING! Your password will be stored unencrypted in /root/.docker/config.json.
Configure a credential helper to remove this warning. See
https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/login/#credentials-store

Login Succeeded

  上传镜像。注意:上传前需要修改仓库名,否则上传有问题。

[[email protected] ~]# docker tag centos:httpd ghhh4512/centos:httpd  //这里的ghhh4512是我的Docker用户名,centos是建立的存储库
[[email protected] ~]# docker push ghhh4512/centos:httpd
The push refers to repository [docker.io/ghhh4512/centos]
7873e44b6044: Pushed 
0e86f20c1056: Pushed 
b3e0fc83922e: Pushed 
877b494a9f30: Pushed 
httpd: digest: sha256:464ffb58cbc2334a936bea7081db41b257afb5b21dfcce6dd27863dc9b777855 size: 1155
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