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mysql中的sql_mode模式实例详解

运维开发网 https://www.qedev.com 2020-01-06 11:23 出处:网络 作者: dawn-liu
这篇文章主要介绍了mysql中的sql_mode模式,结合实例形式详细分析了mysql sql_mode模式相关原理、用法及操作注意事项,需要的朋友可以参考下

本文实例讲述了mysql中的sql_mode模式。分享给大家供大家参考,具体如下:

mysql数据库的中有一个环境变量sql_mode,定义了mysql应该支持的sql语法,数据校验等!我们可以通过以下方式查看当前数据库使用的sql_mode:

mysql> select @@sql_mode;
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| @@sql_mode                           |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

mysql5.0以上版本支持三种sql_mode模式

ANSI模式

宽松模式,对插入数据进行校验,如果不符合定义类型或长度,对数据类型调整或截断保存,报warning警告。

TRADITIONAL模式

严格模式,当向mysql数据库插入数据时,进行数据的严格校验,保证错误数据不能插入,报error错误。用于事物时,会进行事物的回滚。

STRICT_TRANS_TABLES模式

严格模式,进行数据的严格校验,错误数据不能插入,报error错误。

 

1 ANSI模式

在ANSI模式下,当我们插入数据时,未满足列长度要求时,数据同样会插入成功,但是对超出列长度的字段进行截断,同时报告warning警告。

mysql> set @@sql_mode=ANSI;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> create table test(name varchar(4), pass varchar(4));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)
mysql> insert into test values('aaaaa','aaaaa'),('bbbb','bbbb');
Query OK, 2 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.02 sec)
Records: 2 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 2
mysql> show warnings;
+---------+------+-------------------------------------------+
| Level  | Code | Message                  |
+---------+------+-------------------------------------------+
| Warning | 1265 | Data truncated for column 'name' at row 1 |
| Warning | 1265 | Data truncated for column 'pass' at row 1 |
+---------+------+-------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select * from test;
+------+------+
| name | pass |
+------+------+
| aaaa | aaaa |
| bbbb | bbbb |
+------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

2 STRICT_TRANS_TABLES模式

在STRICT_TRANS_TABLES模式下,当我们插入数据时,mysql会严格的进行数据的校验,当发现插入列值未满足要求,直接报告error错误,保证了错误数据无法插入到数据库中。

mysql> set @@sql_mode=STRICT_TRANS_TABLES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> create table test(name varchar(4), pass varchar(4));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
mysql> insert into test values('aaaaa','aaaaa'),('bbbb','bbbb');
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
mysql> show errors;
+-------+------+------------------------------------------+
| Level | Code | Message                 |
+-------+------+------------------------------------------+
| Error | 1406 | Data too long for column 'name' at row 1 |
+-------+------+------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select * from test;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

3 TRADITIONAL模式,初看结果是不是一样

mysql> set @@sql_mode=TRADITIONAL;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> create table test(name varchar(4), pass varchar(4));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
mysql> insert into test values('aaaaa','aaaaa'),('bbbb','bbbb');
ERROR 1406 (22001): Data too long for column 'name' at row 1
mysql> show errors;
+-------+------+------------------------------------------+
| Level | Code | Message                 |
+-------+------+------------------------------------------+
| Error | 1406 | Data too long for column 'name' at row 1 |
+-------+------+------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select * from test;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

但是,可以看看设置后的情况

mysql> set @@sql_mode=TRADITIONAL;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> select @@sql_mode\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
@@sql_mode: STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,STRICT_ALL_TABLES,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,TRADITIONAL,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

在TRADITIONAL模式下,对所有的事务存储引擎,非事务存储引擎检查,日期类型中的月和日部分不能包含0,不能有0这样的日期(0000-00-00),数据不能除0,禁止grant自动创建新用户等一些校验。

最后:

set @@只是在sessions级别设置的,要想所有的都生效,还是要设置配置文件

vi /etc/my.cnf

在[mysqld]下面添加如下列:

sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES

#NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION对于不存在的引擎就报错,不加的话,指定不支持的引擎时指定默认的innodb

另外:sql_mode还有一个配置ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY,这个表示采用group by帅选数据的时候只能查看新组内信息

改模式之前的操作

mysql> select * from employee group by post;
+----+--------+--------+-----+------------+-----------------------------------------+--------------+------------+--------+-----------+
| id | name  | sex  | age | hire_date | post                  | post_comment | salary   | office | depart_id |
+----+--------+--------+-----+------------+-----------------------------------------+--------------+------------+--------+-----------+
| 14 | 张野  | male  | 28 | 2016-03-11 | operation                | NULL     |  10000.13 |  403 |     3 |
| 9 | 歪歪  | female | 48 | 2015-03-11 | sale                  | NULL     |  3000.13 |  402 |     2 |
| 2 | alex  | male  | 78 | 2015-03-02 | teacher                 | NULL     | 1000000.31 |  401 |     1 |
| 1 | egon  | male  | 18 | 2017-03-01 | 老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使       | NULL     |  7300.33 |  401 |     1 |
+----+--------+--------+-----+------------+-----------------------------------------+--------------+------------+--------+-----------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

此时的sql_mode:

mysql> select @@sql_mode;
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| @@sql_mode                           |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

修改一下,退出再进入才会生效

mysql> set global sql_mode='STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> select @@sql_mode;
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| @@sql_mode                           |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> exit
Bye

再次进入

mysql> select @@sql_mode;
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| @@sql_mode |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

下面查看修改后的查看结果

mysql> select * from employee group by post;  //只能查看post
ERROR 1055 (42000): 't1.employee.id' isn't in GROUP BY
mysql> select post from employee group by post;
+-----------------------------------------+
| post                  |
+-----------------------------------------+
| operation                |
| sale                  |
| teacher                 |
| 老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使       |
+-----------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select id,post from employee group by post;
ERROR 1055 (42000): 't1.employee.id' isn't in GROUP BY
mysql> select name,post from employee group by post,name; //根据group by 后面的选择查看
+------------+-----------------------------------------+
| name | post |
+------------+-----------------------------------------+
| 张野 | operation |
| 程咬金 | operation |
| 程咬铁 | operation |
| 程咬铜 | operation |
| 程咬银 | operation |
| 丁丁 | sale |
| 丫丫 | sale |
| 星星 | sale |
| 格格 | sale |
| 歪歪 | sale |
| alex | teacher |
| jingliyang | teacher |
| jinxin | teacher |
| liwenzhou | teacher |
| wupeiqi | teacher |
| xiaomage | teacher |
| yuanhao | teacher |
| egon | 老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使 |
+------------+-----------------------------------------+
18 rows in set (0.00 sec)

更多关于MySQL相关内容感兴趣的读者可查看本站专题:《MySQL查询技巧大全》、《MySQL常用函数大汇总》、《MySQL日志操作技巧大全》、《MySQL事务操作技巧汇总》、《MySQL存储过程技巧大全》及《MySQL数据库锁相关技巧汇总》

希望本文所述对大家MySQL数据库计有所帮助。

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